About The Eagle ILF Program

The Bald Eagle And Golden Eagle Electrocution Prevention In-lieu Fee Program (Eagle ILF Program) is authorized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to sell mitigation credits for Bald Eagles and Golden Eagles. The instrument was originally signed in 2018 and is the only mitigation banking option available specific to eagles and authorized by USFWS to offset incidental take.
The objective of the Eagle ILF Program is to provide a program to offset eagle take with power pole retrofitting as mitigation specified in permits and other authorizations by the USFWS primarily through the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (16 U.S.C. 668–668d) by:
  • Providing technically advanced, standardized, and repeatable retrofitting measures for certain existing hazardous poles across USFWS Eagle Management Units.
  • Ensuring mitigation meets years of avoided loss required in eagle take permits.
  • Simplifying implementation of compensatory mitigation for both eagle take permittees and electric utilities.
  • Increasing efficiency for retrofitting poles for eagle mitigation.
  • Providing an effective and transparent accounting structure for collecting in-lieu fees, disbursing ILF Retrofitting Project funds, and reporting conservation outcomes.
  • Utilizing appropriate monitoring and reporting practices to provide data, accountability and transparency to the USFWS for use in eagle management, modeling, and recovery decision making.
  • Working in an efficient and transparent manner with the USFWS to implement Retrofitting Projects.

Program Area and Service Territories

The Eagle ILF Program is authorized to sell mitigation credits to offset take throughout the species range in the United States. Credits for each species are managed by USFWS eagle management unit (EMU) boundaries.

Program Staff

The Eagle ILF Program is managed by Eagle Electrocution Solutions LLC. Program staff are leading experts in mitigating eagle electrocutions with 30 years of experience working with both the electric utility industry and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to reduce electrocution rates in eagles.
Research on Eagle Electrocution by Program Staff
  • Dwyer, J. F., and E. K. Mojica. 2021. Can a predictive model of avian electrocution risk from southern California be useful in guiding power pole retrofitting for golden eagles throughout the western United States? Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 13.
  • Mojica, E. K., D. T. Eccleston, and R. E. Harness. 2021. Importance of Power Pole Selection when Retrofitting for Eagle Compensatory Mitigation. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 13.
  • Bedrosian, G., J. D. Carlisle, B. Woodbridge, J. R. Dunk, Z. P. Wallace, J. F. Dwyer, R. E. Harness, E. K. Mojica, G. E. Williams, and T. Jones. 2020. A spatially explicit model to predict the relative risk of Golden Eagle electrocutions in the Northwestern Plains, USA. Journal of Raptor Research 54:110–125.
  • Dwyer, J. F., B. D. Gerber, P. Petersen, W. E. Armstrong, and R. E. Harness. 2020. Power Pole Density and Avian Electrocution Risk in the Western United States. Journal of Raptor Research 54:93-109.
  • Dwyer, J. F., R. K. Murphy, D. W. Stahlecker, A. M. Dwyer, and C. W. Boal. 2020. Golden eagle perch site use in the U.S. Southern Plains: Understanding electrocution risk. Journal of Raptor Research 54:126–135.
  • Dwyer, J. F., R. C. Taylor, and G. A. French. 2020. Failure of Utility Pole Perch Deterrents Modified During Installation. Journal of Raptor Research 54:172-176.
  • Mojica, E. K., C. E. Rocca, J. Luzenski, R. E. Harness, J. L. Cummings, J. Schievert, D. D. Austin, and M. A. Landon. 2020. Collision avoidance by wintering Bald Eagles crossing a transmission line. Journal of Raptor Research 54:147–153.
  • Harness, R. E., and E. K. Mojica. 2018. Golden Eagle electrocutions - a persistent global issue. Raptors Conservation Supplement:184–185.
  • Eccleston, D. T., and R. E. Harness. 2018. Raptor Electrocutions and Power Line Collisions. Pages 273–302 in J. Sarasola, J. Grande, and J. Negro, editors. Birds of Prey. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
  • Mojica, E.K., J.F. Dwyer, R.E. Harness, G.E. Williams, and B. Woodbridge. 2018. Review and synthesis of research investigating and mitigating Golden Eagle electrocutions. Journal of Wildlife Management 82(3):495–506.
  • Dwyer, J.F., R.E. Harness, and D.T. Eccleston. 2017. Avian electrocutions on incorrectly retrofitted power poles. Journal of Raptor Research 51:293–304.
  • Dwyer, J.F., R.E. Harness, B.D. Gerber, M.A. Landon, P. Petersen, D.D. Austin, B. Woodbridge, G.E. Williams, and D. Eccleston. 2016. Power pole density informs spatial prioritization for mitigating avian electrocution. Journal of Wildlife Management 80:634-642.
  • Dwyer, J.F., et. al. 2016. Successful use of a perch deterrent to manipulate raptor perching on model power poles. Colorado Birds 50: 166-174.
  • Dwyer, J.F., et. al. 2016. Testing a supplemental perch to prevent raptor electrocution. Northwestern Naturalist 97:1-6.
  • Smith, J.A. and J.F. Dwyer. 2016. Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: an update. The Condor 118:411-423.
  • Dwyer, J.F., G.E. Kratz, R.E Harness, and S.S. Little. 2015. Critical dimensions of raptors on electric utility poles. Journal of Raptor Research 49:210-216.
  • Watts, B.D., E.K. Mojica, and B.J. Paxton. 2015. Using Brownian Bridges to assess potential interactions between Bald Eagles and electrical hazards within the upper Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:435-445.
  • Dwyer, J.F., R.E. Harness, and K. Donohue. 2014. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines. Conservation Biology 28:159-168.
  • Dwyer, J.F. and K. Doloughan. 2014. Testing systems of avian perch deterrents on electric power distribution poles. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8:39-55.
  • Harness, R.E. and J.F. Dwyer. 2011. Field guide: visual inspection of avian issues on transmission and distribution structures.  Report 000000003002005626, Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto, CA.
  • Lehman, R.N., J.A. Savidge, P.L. Kennedy, and R.E. Harness. 2010. Raptor electrocution rates for a utility in the intermountain western United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:459-470.
  • Mojica, E.K., B.D. Watts, J.T. Paul, S.T. Voss, J. Pottie. 2009. Factors contributing to Bald Eagle electrocutions and line collisions on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Journal of Raptor Research 43:57-61.
  • Harness, R.E. 2008. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) electrocutions and artificial food sources in Alaska. Pages 383-387 in J. Goodrich-Mahoney, L. Abrahamson, J. Ballard, and S. Tikalsky [Eds.], Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management, Elsevier Science.
  • Harness, R.E. 2007. Mitigation. Pages. 365-382 in D.M. Bird and K.L. Bildstein [Eds.], Raptor research and management techniques. Raptor Research Foundation.
  • Harness, R.E. and G. Kratz. 2007. Bird streamer as the probable cause of a Bald Eagle electrocution. Colorado Birds: 41:86-90.
  • Harness, R.E. 2006. Contributing author to: Avian Power Line Interaction Committee (APLIC). Suggested practices for avian protection on power lines: state of the art in 2006. Chapter 5 (Steel/Concrete Poles). Edison Electric Institute, APLIC, and the California Energy Commission. Washington, DC and Sacramento, CA.
  • Harness, R.E. 2004. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) electrocutions in Alaska and Florida – a comparison of retrofitting measures. Pages 429-435 in R.D. Chancellor and B.U. Meyburg [Eds.], Raptors worldwide. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin, and MME-BirdLife Hungary, Budapest.
  • Harness, R.E. and K.R. Wilson. 2001. Electric-utility structures associated with raptor electrocutions in rural areas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:612-623.
  • Harness, R.E. and K.R. Wilson. 2000. Raptor electrocutions and outages - a review of rural utility records spanning 1986-1996. Pages 765-771 in R.D. Chancellor and B.-U. Meyburg [Eds.], Raptors at risk. World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Berlin, and Hancock House, Blaine, WA.
  • Harness, R.E. 1999. The effectiveness of perch guards to prevent raptor electrocutions. Pages 187-198 in R.G. Carlton [Ed.], Avian interactions with utility and communication structures. Proceedings of a workshop held in Charleston, SC. December 2-3, 1999. Avian Power Line Interactions Committee; Edison Electric Institute.
  • Harness, R.E. and M. Garrett. 1999. Effectiveness of perch guards to prevent raptor electrocutions. Journal of the Colorado Field Ornithologists 33:215-220.
  • Harness, R.E. 1996. Raptor electrocutions on electric utility overhead structures in summary of items of engineering interest – August 1996. United States Department of Agriculture, Rural Utilities Service, Washington, DC.

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